Cardiovascular conditions

Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Prevalence of 2.6% in this breed compared to 0.16% in mixed breeds and 0.65% in pure breeds
  • Thought to be familial or genetic

Dermatological conditions

Pyotraumatic folliculitis
  • Also known as hot spot, wet eczema
Ehler-Danlos syndrome
  • Also known as cutaneous asthenia
Callus dermatitis/pyoderma
  • This breed predisposed to lip fold pyoderma

Gastrointestinal conditions

Gastric dilatation-volvulus
  • Breed predisposition

Haematological conditions

Haemophilia B
  • Factor IX deficiency
  • Also known as Christmas disease

Musculoskeletal conditions

Increased anteversion of the femoral head and neck
  • Conformational abnormality
  • Component of hip dysplasia
Elbow dysplasia
  • Also known as osteochondrosis
  • Genetically determined in this breed
Hip dysplasia
  • Seventh worst mean-scoring breed in the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme as of October 2001
Cranial cruciate ligament rupture
  • Neutered individuals may be predisposed
  • Young animals may be predisposed in this breed
  • Reported to be familial in this breed
Lateral patellar luxation
  • Also known as genu valgum

Neoplastic conditions

Non-epitheliotropic lymphoma
Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma)
  • Higher incidence noted in this breed
Primary bone tumours (most commonly osteosarcoma)
  • Breed predisposition

Neurological conditions

  • Congenital deafness
True epilepsy
  • Inheritance suspected
  • Reported in this breed
Distal polyneuropathy
  • Reported in this breed

Ocular conditions

  • Breed predisposition
Entropion (usually lower lids; may be associated with macropalpebral fissure)
  • Breed predisposition
Ectropion (may be associated with macropalpebral fissure)
  • Breed predisposition
Macropalpebral fissure resulting in combined entropion-ectropion (‘diamond eye’)
  • Breed predisposition
Eversion of the cartilage of the nictitating membrane
  • Breed predisposition
Prolapse of the gland of the nictitatingmembrane
  • Breed predisposition
  • Inheritance suspected
Optic nerve hypoplasia
  • Congenital defect; not known if inherited
Multiple ocular defects
  • Congenital condition

Physiological conditions

Additional process on the medial aspect ofthe central tarsal bone
Lateral tarsal torsion and tarsal valgus deformity
  • Cosmetic fault

Reproductive conditions

Vaginal hyperplasia
  • Possible breed predisposition