Labrador Retriever – Disease Predisposition

Labrador Retriever

LABRADOR RETRIEVER

Cardiovascular conditions

Tricuspid dysplasia
Pericardial effusion
Pulmonic stenosis
Bypass tract macro re-entrant tachycardia in Labrador Retrievers

Dermatological conditions

Pyotraumatic folliculitis
  • Also known as hot spot, wet eczema
Eosinophilic dermatitis and oedema
Pododermatitis
Blastomycosis
Cryptococcosis
Atopy
  • Females probably predisposed
Contact hypersensitivity
  • One study found 20% of cases occurred in yellow Labradors
Food hypersensitivity
Pemphigus foliaceous
  • Usually drug induced in this breed
Cyclic follicular dysplasia
Primary seborrhoea
  • Autosomal recessive inheritance likely
Ichthyosis
  • Rare
  • Congenital
  • Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait
Congenital hypotrichosis
  • Predisposition for males suggests sex linkage
Primary lymphoedema
Nasal depigmentation
  • Affects yellow LabradorsAlso known as Dudley nose
  • Cause unknown
  • Seasonal depigmentation also seen in this breed –  also known as snow nose
Nasal hyperkeratosis
  • Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait
Mucocutaneous hypopigmentation
  • Nasal form is common in this breed
Acral lick dermatitis
Zinc-responsive dermatosis
Waterline disease of black Labrador Retrievers
Greying

• May occur at a young age in this breed

Hyperadrenocorticism: adrenocortical tumour (AT)
  • Possible breed predisposition
Diabetes mellitus
  • Frequently affected breed in some surveys
Primary hypoparathyroidism
  • Frequently affected breed in some surveys

• Uncommon condition

Insulinoma
  • Higher incidence seen in this breed

Gastrointestinal conditions

Congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus
  • Possible breed predisposition
Secondary megaoesophagus
Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis
  • Possible breed predisposition
Perianal fistula
  • Possible breed predisposition
Chronic hepatitis
  • Possible breed predisposition
Congenital portosystemic shunt
  • Breed predisposition

Haematological conditions

Haemophilia B

Infectious conditions

Cryptococcosis
  • Increased incidence in this breed possibly due to an increased likelihood of exposure
Blastomycosis
  • Increased incidence in this breed possibly due to an increased likelihood of exposure
  • Seen mainly in young male dogs living near water

Musculoskeletal conditions

Carpal ligament weakening
Elbow dysplasia
  • Also known as osteochondrosis
  • Genetically determined in this breed
  • Medial coronoid process disease is common in this breed
  • A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this breed as 17.8%
Hip dysplasia
  • A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this breed as 12.6%
Ocular-skeletal dysplasia
Labrador Retriever myopathy
  • Common in the UK
Myasthenia gravis
Shoulder osteochondrosis
Hock osteochondrosis
  • Common disease
Temporomandibular dysplasia
  • Congenital
  • Uncommon
Cranial cruciate ligament rupture
  • Young animals may be predisposed in this breed
Transitional vertebral segments
  • Females are predisposed
  • Thought to be inherited

Neoplastic conditions

Mast cell tumours
  • Possible breed predisposition
Canine cutaneous histiocytoma
  • Possible breed predisposition
Lipoma
  • Possible breed predisposition
Squamous cell carcinoma of the digit
  • Possible breed predisposition
Nasal cavity tumours
  • Reported to be at increased risk
Insulinoma
Adrenocortical tumour resulting in hyperadrenocorticism
Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma)
  • Higher incidence noted in this breed
Limbal melanoma
  • Breed predisposition
Oral fibrosarcoma
  • High incidence in this breed reported by some authors
Thymoma
  • Uncommon tumour
  • High incidence reported in this breed in one study

Neurological conditions

Cerebellar degeneration
True epilepsy
  • Inheritance suspected
Narcolepsy-cataplexy
  • Autosomal recessive inheritance suspected
Acquired myasthenia gravis
  • Possible breed predisposition
Spongiform degeneration
  • Inheritance suspected
Distal polyneuropathy

Ocular conditions

Entropion (usually lower lids)
  • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely
Ectropion (mild, usually disappears with maturity)
  • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely
Medial canthal pocket syndrome
  • Breed predisposition due to general head shape
Limbal melanoma
  • Breed predisposition
Uveal cysts
  • Breed predisposition
Canine anterior uveal melanoma
  • Breed predisposition
Cataract
Primary glaucoma
  • Breed predisposition
Total retinal dysplasia with retinal detachment
  • Congenital condition inherited as a simple autosomal recessive trait
  • Retinal dysplasia without skeletal deformity is seen more commonly in Europe than the US
Multifocal retinal dysplasia
  • Congenital condition; dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance has been proposed
Geographic retinal dysplasia
  • Congenital condition; inheritance suspected
  • Reported in the UK
Retinal dysplasia with skeletal abnormalities
Generalised progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA)
  • Autosomal recessive inheritance
Central progressive retinal atrophy (CPRA) or retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED)
  • More prevalent in the UK than in the USA
  • Becoming less prevalent following the introduction of control schemes
Micropapilla
  • Congenital condition
Optic nerve colobomas
  • Congenital defect; not known if inherited
Pseudopapilloedema

Physiological conditions

Blood group
  • This breed is usually DEA 1.1 or DEA 1.2 positive
Gestation
  • Mean gestation reported as 60.9 days
Vertebral heart score
  • The healthy dog has a higher mean score than most other breeds

Renal and urinary conditions

Ectopic ureters
  • Congenital anomaly; higher incidence reported in this breed
Silica urolithiasis
  • Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

Reproductive conditions

Vaginal hyperplasia
  • Possible breed predisposition
Azoospermia with spermatogenic arrest

Respiratory conditions

Laryngeal paralysis
  • Idiopathic

LABRADOR RETRIEVER

Cardiovascular conditions

Tricuspid dysplasia

Congenital

Males predisposed

Marked risk in this breed (relative risk >5)

Patent ductus arteriosus

Generally this breed is at lower risk of this

condition than other breeds

May be predisposed in some areas

Pericardial effusion

Acquired

Relative risk 2.2

Pulmonic stenosis

Third most frequent cause of canine congenital

heart disease

Polygenic mode of inheritance likely

DOGS

Bypass tract macro re-entrant tachycardia in

Labrador Retrievers

Abnormal conduction leading to dysrhythmia

Dermatological conditions

Pyotraumatic folliculitis

Young dogs predisposed

Also known as hot spot, wet eczema

Eosinophilic dermatitis and oedema

Rare

Pododermatitis

Males predisposed

Front feet more commonly affected

Blastomycosis

See under Infectious conditions

Cryptococcosis

See under Infectious conditions

Atopy

Females probably predisposed

Age of onset from 6 months to 7 years

May or may not be seasonal

Contact hypersensitivity

One study found 20% of cases occurred in

yellow Labradors

Food hypersensitivity

No age or sex predisposition reported

Pemphigus foliaceous

Usually drug induced in this breed

Cyclic follicular dysplasia

Seems to be a particular problem in Alaska, so

duration of daylight exposure may be important

Primary seborrhoea

Autosomal recessive inheritance likely

Signs first appear at early age and get worse

with age

Ichthyosis

Rare

Congenital

Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive

trait

Labrador Retriever 99

Congenital hypotrichosis

Present at birth or develops in the first month

of life

Predisposition for males suggests sex linkage

Primary lymphoedema

No apparent sex predisposition

Usually occurs within the first 12 weeks of life

Nasal depigmentation

Affects yellow Labradors

Also known as Dudley nose

Cause unknown

Seasonal depigmentation also seen in this

breed; also known as snow nose

Nasal hyperkeratosis

Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive

trait

Affects males and females 6–12 months of age

Mucocutaneous hypopigmentation

Nasal form is common in this breed

Acral lick dermatitis

Occurs in males more commonly than females

Can occur at any age, but usually over 5 years

Zinc-responsive dermatosis

Occurs in rapidly-growing dogs fed zincdeficient

diets

Waterline disease of black Labrador

Retrievers

Affects either sex

Scrotal vascular naevus

More common in older dogs

Greying

May occur at a young age in this breed

Skin tumours

See under Neoplastic conditions

Endocrine conditions

Hyperadrenocorticism: adrenocortical

tumour (AT)

Possible breed predisposition

Middle-aged/older

60–65% female

DOGS

Diabetes mellitus

Frequently affected breed in some surveys

Usual age range: 4–14 years; peak incidence:

7–9 years

Old entire females are predisposed

Primary hypoparathyroidism

Frequently affected breed in some surveys

Uncommon condition

Occurs at any age

Insulinoma

Higher incidence seen in this breed

Usually middle-aged/older dogs

Gastrointestinal conditions

Congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus

Possible breed predisposition

Secondary megaoesophagus

Familial reflex myoclonus may be associated

with megaoesophagus

Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis

Possible breed predisposition

Perianal fistula

Possible breed predisposition

Chronic hepatitis

Possible breed predisposition

Congenital portosystemic shunt

Breed predisposition

Clinical signs usually seen <1 year

Haematological conditions

Haemophilia B

Factor IX defiency

Also known as Christmas disease

Inherited as a sex-linked trait

Less common than haemophilia A

Infectious conditions

Cryptococcosis

Increased incidence in this breed possibly

due to an increased likelihood of exposure

Usually seen in dogs under 4 years; no obvious

sex predilection

Worldwide distribution, but favoured by

warm, humid climates

100 Dogs

Blastomycosis

Increased incidence in this breed possibly

due to an increased likelihood of exposure

Seen mainly in young male dogs living near

water

Geographic distribution: around the

Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Tennessee, and

St Lawrence Rivers, the southern Great

Lakes and the southern mid-Atlantic states.

Not reported in the UK

Infectious skin disease

See under Dermatological conditions

Musculoskeletal conditions

Carpal ligament weakening

Affects older obese dogs

Tarsal ligaments may also be affected

Elbow dysplasia

Also known as osteochondrosis

Genetically determined in this breed

Medial coronoid process disease is common

in this breed

A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this

breed as 17.8%

Osteochondritis dissecans and fragmented

coronoid processes are inherited independently

as polygenic traits in this breed

Hip dysplasia

A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this

breed as 12.6%

Ocular-skeletal dysplasia

Defect of growth of tubular bone

See retinal dysplasia with skeletal abnormalities

under Ocular conditions

Labrador Retriever myopathy

Common in the UK

Onset of signs usually 8–12 weeks

Myasthenia gravis

See under Neurological conditions

Shoulder osteochondrosis

Male:female ratio 2.24:1

50% of cases are bilateral

Age of onset is usually 4–7 months but can

be older

DOGS

Hock osteochondrosis

Common disease

Mainly affects the proximal medial trochlear

ridge

Temporomandibular dysplasia

Congenital

Uncommon

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture

Common cause of hind-limb lameness

Neutered individuals may be predisposed

Young animals may be predisposed in this

breed

Transitional vertebral segments

Females are predisposed

Thought to be inherited

Neoplastic conditions

Mast cell tumours

Possible breed predisposition

May be seen at any age (from 4 months

onwards), but usually seen in older animals

Canine cutaneous histiocytoma

Possible breed predisposition

More common in young dogs 1–2 years of

age

Lipoma

Possible breed predisposition

Most common in middle-aged, obese female

dogs

Infiltrative lipomas can be seen in this breed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the digit

Possible breed predisposition

Older dogs

Dogs with black coats seem to be more frequently

affected

Nasal cavity tumours

Reported to be at increased risk

Average age reported as 10.5–11 years

Dogs in urban areas may be at increased risk

Insulinoma

See under Endocrine conditions

Labrador Retriever 101

Adrenocortical tumour resulting in

hyperadrenocorticism

See under Endocrine conditions

Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma)

Higher incidence noted in this breed

Most cases are seen in middle-aged dogs

(mean 6–7 years)

Limbal melanoma

Breed predisposition

Oral fibrosarcoma

High incidence in this breed reported by

some authors

Males may be predisposed

Mean age of onset is 7.5 years but up to 25%

of cases have been seen <5 years

Thymoma

Uncommon tumour

High incidence reported in this breed in one

study

Mean age 7.5 years

Possible predisposition for females

Neurological conditions

Cerebellar degeneration

Has been reported

Signs seen at 12 weeks

True epilepsy

Inheritance suspected

Age of onset: 6 months to 3 years

Narcolepsy-cataplexy

Autosomal recessive inheritance suspected

Age of clinical onset: <1 year

Acquired myasthenia gravis

Possible breed predisposition

Adults affected

Spongiform degeneration

Inheritance suspected

Rare

Age of clinical onset: 3–6 months

Distal polyneuropathy

Age of clinical onset: >1 year

DOGS

Ocular conditions

Entropion (usually lower lids)

Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance

likely

Ectropion (mild, usually disappears with

maturity)

Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance

likely

Medial canthal pocket syndrome

Breed predisposition due to general head

shape

Limbal melanoma

Breed predisposition

Uveal cysts

Breed predisposition

Age of clinical onset: 3–6 years

Canine anterior uveal melanoma

Breed predisposition

Cataract

Dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance

suggested

Localisation: posterior polar subcapsular

Age of onset: 6–18 months; slowly progressive;

rarely proceeds to blindness

Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

Other types: anterior subcapsular occurring at

about 5 years and progressing slowly (mode

of inheritance unknown); peripheral cortical

cataract occurring at 3 years and progressing

slowly (mode of inheritance unknown)

Primary glaucoma

Breed predisposition

An association with goniodysgenesis has been

suggested in this breed

Total retinal dysplasia with retinal detachment

Congenital condition inherited as a simple

autosomal recessive trait

Retinal dysplasia without skeletal deformity is

seen more commonly in Europe than the US

Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

102 Dogs

Multifocal retinal dysplasia

Congenital condition; dominant inheritance

with incomplete penetrance has been

proposed

Schedule 3 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

Geographic retinal dysplasia

Congenital condition; inheritance suspected

Reported in the UK

Retinal dysplasia with skeletal abnormalities

Dogs may be affected with retinal dysplasias

(total, geographic or multifocal) and varying

degrees of developmental skeletal abnormalities

(short-limbed dwarfism)

It has been suggested that this condition is

inherited as one autosomal gene which has

recessive effects on the skeleton and incomplete

dominant effects on the eye

Generalised progressive retinal atrophy

(GPRA)

Autosomal recessive inheritance

Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD)

Age of clinical onset and rate of progression

vary; may be associated with cataract

formation

Schedule 1 BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Central progressive retinal atrophy (CPRA)

or retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy

(RPED)

Dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance

has been suggested

More prevalent in the UK than in the USA

Becoming less prevalent following the introduction

of control schemes

Ophthalmoscopic signs seen at 2–3 years of

age; visual problems noticed at 4–5 years

Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

Micropapilla

Congenital condition

Seen occasionally in this breed

Optic nerve colobomas

Congenital defect; not known if inherited

Seen

LABRADOR RETRIEVER

Cardiovascular conditions

Tricuspid dysplasia

• Congenital

• Males predisposed

• Marked risk in this breed (relative risk >5)

Patent ductus arteriosus

• Generally this breed is at lower risk of this

condition than other breeds

• May be predisposed in some areas

Pericardial effusion

• Acquired

• Relative risk 2.2

Pulmonic stenosis

• Third most frequent cause of canine congenital

heart disease

• Polygenic mode of inheritance likely

DOGS

Bypass tract macro re-entrant tachycardia in

Labrador Retrievers

• Abnormal conduction leading to dysrhythmia

Dermatological conditions

Pyotraumatic folliculitis

• Young dogs predisposed

• Also known as hot spot, wet eczema

Eosinophilic dermatitis and oedema

• Rare

Pododermatitis

• Males predisposed

• Front feet more commonly affected

Blastomycosis

• See under Infectious conditions

Cryptococcosis

• See under Infectious conditions

Atopy

• Females probably predisposed

• Age of onset from 6 months to 7 years

• May or may not be seasonal

Contact hypersensitivity

• One study found 20% of cases occurred in

yellow Labradors

Food hypersensitivity

• No age or sex predisposition reported

Pemphigus foliaceous

• Usually drug induced in this breed

Cyclic follicular dysplasia

• Seems to be a particular problem in Alaska, so

duration of daylight exposure may be important

Primary seborrhoea

• Autosomal recessive inheritance likely

• Signs first appear at early age and get worse

with age

Ichthyosis

• Rare

• Congenital

• Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive

trait

Labrador Retriever 99

Congenital hypotrichosis

• Present at birth or develops in the first month

of life

• Predisposition for males suggests sex linkage

Primary lymphoedema

• No apparent sex predisposition

• Usually occurs within the first 12 weeks of life

Nasal depigmentation

• Affects yellow Labradors

• Also known as Dudley nose

• Cause unknown

• Seasonal depigmentation also seen in this

breed; also known as snow nose

Nasal hyperkeratosis

• Possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive

trait

• Affects males and females 6–12 months of age

Mucocutaneous hypopigmentation

• Nasal form is common in this breed

Acral lick dermatitis

• Occurs in males more commonly than females

• Can occur at any age, but usually over 5 years

Zinc-responsive dermatosis

• Occurs in rapidly-growing dogs fed zincdeficient

diets

Waterline disease of black Labrador

Retrievers

• Affects either sex

Scrotal vascular naevus

• More common in older dogs

Greying

• May occur at a young age in this breed

Skin tumours

• See under Neoplastic conditions

Endocrine conditions

Hyperadrenocorticism: adrenocortical

tumour (AT)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Middle-aged/older

• 60–65% female

DOGS

Diabetes mellitus

• Frequently affected breed in some surveys

• Usual age range: 4–14 years; peak incidence:

7–9 years

• Old entire females are predisposed

Primary hypoparathyroidism

• Frequently affected breed in some surveys

• Uncommon condition

• Occurs at any age

Insulinoma

• Higher incidence seen in this breed

• Usually middle-aged/older dogs

Gastrointestinal conditions

Congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus

• Possible breed predisposition

Secondary megaoesophagus

• Familial reflex myoclonus may be associated

with megaoesophagus

Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis

• Possible breed predisposition

Perianal fistula

• Possible breed predisposition

Chronic hepatitis

• Possible breed predisposition

Congenital portosystemic shunt

• Breed predisposition

• Clinical signs usually seen <1 year

Haematological conditions

Haemophilia B

• Factor IX defiency

• Also known as Christmas disease

• Inherited as a sex-linked trait

• Less common than haemophilia A

Infectious conditions

Cryptococcosis

• Increased incidence in this breed possibly

due to an increased likelihood of exposure

• Usually seen in dogs under 4 years; no obvious

sex predilection

• Worldwide distribution, but favoured by

warm, humid climates

100 Dogs

Blastomycosis

• Increased incidence in this breed possibly

due to an increased likelihood of exposure

• Seen mainly in young male dogs living near

water

• Geographic distribution: around the

Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Tennessee, and

St Lawrence Rivers, the southern Great

Lakes and the southern mid-Atlantic states.

Not reported in the UK

Infectious skin disease

• See under Dermatological conditions

Musculoskeletal conditions

Carpal ligament weakening

• Affects older obese dogs

• Tarsal ligaments may also be affected

Elbow dysplasia

• Also known as osteochondrosis

• Genetically determined in this breed

• Medial coronoid process disease is common

in this breed

• A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this

breed as 17.8%

• Osteochondritis dissecans and fragmented

coronoid processes are inherited independently

as polygenic traits in this breed

Hip dysplasia

• A 1999 study estimated the prevalence in this

breed as 12.6%

Ocular-skeletal dysplasia

• Defect of growth of tubular bone

• See retinal dysplasia with skeletal abnormalities

under Ocular conditions

Labrador Retriever myopathy

• Common in the UK

• Onset of signs usually 8–12 weeks

Myasthenia gravis

• See under Neurological conditions

Shoulder osteochondrosis

• Male:female ratio 2.24:1

• 50% of cases are bilateral

• Age of onset is usually 4–7 months but can

be older

DOGS

Hock osteochondrosis

• Common disease

• Mainly affects the proximal medial trochlear

ridge

Temporomandibular dysplasia

• Congenital

• Uncommon

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture

• Common cause of hind-limb lameness

• Neutered individuals may be predisposed

• Young animals may be predisposed in this

breed

Transitional vertebral segments

• Females are predisposed

• Thought to be inherited

Neoplastic conditions

Mast cell tumours

• Possible breed predisposition

• May be seen at any age (from 4 months

onwards), but usually seen in older animals

Canine cutaneous histiocytoma

• Possible breed predisposition

• More common in young dogs 1–2 years of

age

Lipoma

• Possible breed predisposition

• Most common in middle-aged, obese female

dogs

• Infiltrative lipomas can be seen in this breed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the digit

• Possible breed predisposition

• Older dogs

• Dogs with black coats seem to be more frequently

affected

Nasal cavity tumours

• Reported to be at increased risk

• Average age reported as 10.5–11 years

• Dogs in urban areas may be at increased risk

Insulinoma

• See under Endocrine conditions

Labrador Retriever 101

Adrenocortical tumour resulting in

hyperadrenocorticism

• See under Endocrine conditions

Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma)

• Higher incidence noted in this breed

• Most cases are seen in middle-aged dogs

(mean 6–7 years)

Limbal melanoma

• Breed predisposition

Oral fibrosarcoma

• High incidence in this breed reported by

some authors

• Males may be predisposed

• Mean age of onset is 7.5 years but up to 25%

of cases have been seen <5 years

Thymoma

• Uncommon tumour

• High incidence reported in this breed in one

study

• Mean age 7.5 years

• Possible predisposition for females

Neurological conditions

Cerebellar degeneration

• Has been reported

• Signs seen at 12 weeks

True epilepsy

• Inheritance suspected

• Age of onset: 6 months to 3 years

Narcolepsy-cataplexy

• Autosomal recessive inheritance suspected

• Age of clinical onset: <1 year

Acquired myasthenia gravis

• Possible breed predisposition

• Adults affected

Spongiform degeneration

• Inheritance suspected

• Rare

• Age of clinical onset: 3–6 months

Distal polyneuropathy

• Age of clinical onset: >1 year

DOGS

Ocular conditions

Entropion (usually lower lids)

• Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance

likely

Ectropion (mild, usually disappears with

maturity)

• Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance

likely

Medial canthal pocket syndrome

• Breed predisposition due to general head

shape

Limbal melanoma

• Breed predisposition

Uveal cysts

• Breed predisposition

• Age of clinical onset: 3–6 years

Canine anterior uveal melanoma

• Breed predisposition

Cataract

• Dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance

suggested

• Localisation: posterior polar subcapsular

• Age of onset: 6–18 months; slowly progressive;

rarely proceeds to blindness

• Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

• Other types: anterior subcapsular occurring at

about 5 years and progressing slowly (mode

of inheritance unknown); peripheral cortical

cataract occurring at 3 years and progressing

slowly (mode of inheritance unknown)

Primary glaucoma

• Breed predisposition

• An association with goniodysgenesis has been

suggested in this breed

Total retinal dysplasia with retinal detachment

• Congenital condition inherited as a simple

autosomal recessive trait

• Retinal dysplasia without skeletal deformity is

seen more commonly in Europe than the US

• Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

102 Dogs

Multifocal retinal dysplasia

• Congenital condition; dominant inheritance

with incomplete penetrance has been

proposed

• Schedule 3 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

Geographic retinal dysplasia

• Congenital condition; inheritance suspected

• Reported in the UK

Retinal dysplasia with skeletal abnormalities

• Dogs may be affected with retinal dysplasias

(total, geographic or multifocal) and varying

degrees of developmental skeletal abnormalities

(short-limbed dwarfism)

• It has been suggested that this condition is

inherited as one autosomal gene which has

recessive effects on the skeleton and incomplete

dominant effects on the eye

Generalised progressive retinal atrophy

(GPRA)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance

• Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD)

• Age of clinical onset and rate of progression

vary; may be associated with cataract

formation

• Schedule 1 BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Central progressive retinal atrophy (CPRA)

or retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy

(RPED)

• Dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance

has been suggested

• More prevalent in the UK than in the USA

• Becoming less prevalent following the introduction

of control schemes

• Ophthalmoscopic signs seen at 2–3 years of

age; visual problems noticed at 4–5 years

• Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye

Scheme

Micropapilla

• Congenital condition

• Seen occasionally in this breed

Optic nerve colobomas

• Congenital defect; not known if inherited

• Seen occasionally in this breed

DOGS

Pseudopapilloedema

• Seen occasionally in this breed

Physiological conditions

Blood group

• This breed is usually DEA 1.1 or DEA 1.2

positive

Gestation

• Mean gestation reported as 60.9 days

Vertebral heart score

• The healthy dog has a higher mean score

than most other breeds

Renal and urinary conditions

Ectopic ureters

• Congenital anomaly; higher incidence reported

in this breed

• Usually presents <1 year of age

• More commonly diagnosed in females

Silica urolithiasis

• Higher incidence has been noted in this

breed in some surveys

• Males seem to be predisposed

Reproductive conditions

Vaginal hyperplasia

• Possible breed predisposition

Azoospermia with spermatogenic arrest

• Reported in this breed

Respiratory conditions

Laryngeal paralysis

• Idiopathic

occasionally in this breed

DOGS

Pseudopapilloedema

Seen occasionally in this breed

Physiological conditions

Blood group

This breed is usually DEA 1.1 or DEA 1.2

positive

Gestation

Mean gestation reported as 60.9 days

Vertebral heart score

The healthy dog has a higher mean score

than most other breeds

Renal and urinary conditions

Ectopic ureters

Congenital anomaly; higher incidence reported

in this breed

Usually presents <1 year of age

More commonly diagnosed in females

Silica urolithiasis

Higher incidence has been noted in this

breed in some surveys

Males seem to be predisposed

Reproductive conditions

Vaginal hyperplasia

Possible breed predisposition

Azoospermia with spermatogenic arrest

Reported in this breed

Respiratory conditions

Laryngeal paralysis

Idiopathic

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